Education in Ethiopia
Ethiopia has made tangible progress in the education sector. The system expanded from having 10 million learners a decade ago to more than 25 million learners today. The country has been able to maintain and improve the learning achievement in key subjects. For instance, in 4th grade, the total number of students achieving basic proficiency or higher in all subjects increased from 505,000 in 2011 to 792,000 in 2015 (57% increase).
To bolster up this upward trend, Ethiopia developed a sector plan for 2015/16 to 2019/20. The Education Sector Development Program V (ESDP V) is guided by the vision to maintain the momentum of expanding equitable access to quality general education, establish technical and vocational education and training institutes in all woredas, strengthen tertiary education institutions and provide lifelong learning opportunities so that all can contribute and benefit from rapid growth and economic change in Ethiopia.
Six priority programs have been selected in this regard with their respective goals:
- To improve the management of the education system to increase institution performance and student achievement,
- To improve the quality of general education in order to motivate children to complete primary and secondary school and provide them with the knowledge, skills and values that would help them become productive and responsible citizens,
- To give all children access to pre-primary education for school preparedness and access to nearby institutions where they can complete full eight years of primary education and two years of general secondary education,
- To create a learning society by providing adult and non-formal education related to lifelong learning opportunities that will contribute to personal, societal and economic development,
- To produce a lower-and middle-level, competent, motivated, adaptable and innovative workforce,
- To produce competent graduates who possess appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes, to promote knowledge and technology transfer based on national development and community needs through research, and to ensure that education and research promote principles of freedom in exchange of views and opinions based on reason, democratic and multicultural values.
The ESDP V also focuses on eight crosscutting issues that affect education including gender, special needs, HIV/AIDS, environmental protection, education in emergencies, school health and nutrition, and drug and substance abuse prevention.
All amounts are in US dollars.
|Grant type||Years||Allocations||Disbursements||Grant agent|
|Sector plan development||2016||187,170||67,774||UNICEF|
Source: World Bank - Education Data
Data on education are compiled by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics from official responses to surveys and from reports provided by education authorities in each country.
Primary Gross Enrollment Rate (%)
Primary Completion Rate (%)
Lower Secondary Completion Rate (%)
Out-of-school Children Rate (%)
Public Expenditure on Education as Share of GDP (%)
Public Expenditure on Education as a Share of Public Expenditure (%)
Public Expenditure on Primary as a Share of Total Education Expenditure (%)
Student/Trained teacher ratio
Teachers Trained (%)
GPE in Ethiopia
The current GPE grant of US$100 million is channeled into improving learning conditions in primary and secondary schools and strengthening institutions at different levels of educational administration. Seven other development partners are involved in supporting the general education program in Ethiopia along with GPE: the World Bank, DFID, Finland, UNICEF, Italy, Norway, and USAID).
The GPE-funded program has six components:
- Curriculum implementation and teaching and learning materials, which emphasizes improving the quality of learning and relevance of curriculum, and increasing the supply of teaching and learning materials from kindergarten to grade 12;
- A teacher development program, which seeks to enhance the quality of teaching in general education through pre-service and in-service teacher training and continuous professional development;
- A school improvement program, which supports the strengthening of school planning to improve learning outcomes, and to partly fund school improvement plans through school grants;
- A system management and capacity building program, which includes education management information system (EMIS), quality assurance systems, and capacity building programs;
- ICT in education, which aims to build ICT infrastructure and skills within the education sector by:
- supporting the development of a policy framework that will guide all ICT in general education initiatives by establishing a national institution
- provision of E-cloud infrastructure to improve learning conditions in 300 secondary schools and 10 teacher training institutions
- integration of ICT into teaching and learning through a Learning Management System
The objectives for the variable part of the grant, to achieve results in learning outcomes, equity and efficiency, are the following:
- Reduce the proportion of low performing primary schools (Level 1 in inspection standards) in the region with highest share of these schools;
- Improve the learning environment of pre-primary classes in two emerging regions by increasing the capacity of facilitators to deliver an early childhood education curriculum package;
- Improve the gender balance in school leadership by increasing the number of trained female primary school principals;
- Encourage more inclusive learning environments by increasing the school grant allocation to support special needs;
- Reduce Grade 1 dropout rates in the region with the highest dropout rate.
The Federal Ministry of Education leads the program in partnership with the World Bank as grant agent.
Source: World Bank project appraisal document. September 2016
The GPE grant has contributed to achieving the following results in the education sector in Ethiopia:
- The Grade 1 dropout rate has been reduced from 25% in 2012 to 17.9% in early 2015/2016.
- 63.7 million textbooks and supplementary materials for different subjects and grades have been distributed to schools. They include mother tongue textbooks.
- 96% of schools received school grants for the 2016/2017 school year.
- Close to 170,000 primary and secondary teachers took written licensing exam.
- 95% of schools were inspected in 2016.
- 36,600 primary teacher trainees and 6,539 secondary teacher trainees are attending diploma and post-graduate programs.
- 22,000 primary teachers are attending upgrading programs from certificate to diploma and 16,413 secondary teachers are upgrading their degrees.
- 100% of schools surveyed use at least half of their school grant allocation for their school improvement plans.