Education in Tanzania
Tanzania’s education sector plan (ESP) is the result of a meaningful and extensive collaboration between the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology; the President’s Office-Regional and Local Government Administration; and development partners, including civil society.
The education plan represents a huge accomplishment because for the first time in Tanzania, the plan provides an overarching framework within which the plans and budgets of all implementing agencies must be set and aligned to.
The new ESP highlights two key policy initiatives:
- Tanzania’s commitment to providing twelve years of free and compulsory basic education to the entire population, leaving no one behind
- The progressive expansion of technical and vocational education and training to provide Tanzania with the pool of skilled human resources needed to advance to becoming a semi-industrialized middle-income country by 2025.
Since the government of Tanzania started implementing a fee-free basic education policy in 2016, enrollment has increased in basic education and the number of out-of-school children has decreased. Survival rates have also dramatically increased. However, the education plan recognizes that increasing school access while simultaneously improving learning outcomes will present a major challenge for the country.
The Zanzibar Education Development Plan II 2017/2018–2021/2022 is the second comprehensive sector-wide strategy. It aims to contribute to the development of skills and knowledge of children and youth, allowing them to realize their full potential and contribute to the development of Zanzibar.
The ZEDP II outlines three objectives:
- All children can access and complete a relevant and quality basic education, including increasing access to pre-primary education, upper secondary school, higher education and technical and vocational education and training.
- Improved learning outcomes at all levels of the system with graduates able and well qualified to enter the world of work.
- Compatible institutional architecture and high quality leadership with access to quality data and research providing for effective and efficient education management and accountability.
The specific interventions by subsector are:
- Pre-primary and primary education:
- Increase access to pre-primary and primary school, with a focus on the most disadvantaged areas and children
- Improve the quality of learning
- Enhance the leadership and management skills at all levels as part of the decentralization process.
- Secondary education:
- Increase access to Form 1 to 4 for all children
- Improve the quality and relevance of the curriculum in science, technology, English and mathematics to meet labor market demands
- Enhance leadership and management of schools with clear roles defined for communities, students, teachers and principals.
- Higher education:
- Ensure adequacy of graduates have skills with the demands of the labor market
- Provide pre-service teacher training and professional development that reflects best pedagogical practices
- Improve the quality of research outputs.
- TVET, adult literacy, alternative learning and continuing education:
- Provide training relevant to market demands, delivered by well-trained instructors
- Increase the adult literacy rate.
- Quality and cross cutting issues:
- Review and update the curriculum to reflect relevant learning expectation and gender-sensitive content
- Provide professional development for teachers in mathematics, science and English language and child-centered pedagogical skills
- Introduce ICT for learning
- Review the learning assessment system
- Provide inclusive education to allow all children to attend school
- Develop a comprehensive strategy on like skills, school health, nutrition, reproductive health and protection
- Institutional reform, leadership and management
- Establish the appropriate architecture to deliver education effectively in a decentralized fashion
- Build capacity of leaders, managers and administrators
- Provide quality research to allow decision-making based on robust data from EMIS.