Education in Rwanda
Rwanda considers education a critical investment for the country’s future growth and development. This is evidenced by the increased share of the national budget allocated to the education sector, which is projected to increase from 17% in 2012/13 to 22% in 2017/18.
In the past few years, the education system in Rwanda has gone through an impressive period of growth especially in terms of access. However, the country still faces many challenges such as the onerous task of double-shift teaching for the primary school teachers and the language transition from French to English for grades 4 and above, which has been very difficult for teachers who do not have adequate time to improve their skills in English language.
The concepts of universal equitable access and quality education provision are the foundation of the Education Sector Strategic Plan (ESSP) 2013/14 -2017/18. This plan builds upon the national priority of making quality twelve-year basic education available for all children and also reflects the country’s mission to make education at all levels more accessible.
The ESSP outlines three main goals:
- Promoting access to education at all levels
- Improving the quality of education and training
- Strengthening the relevance of education and training to meet labor market demands.
Equity in access to education is emphasized to ensure that disadvantaged students, such as girls, the poor and the disabled, have access to quality learning opportunities.
The following expected outcomes have been developed based on the goals mentioned above:
- Expand access to 12 years of basic education
- Increase access for students with special needs
- Improve learning outcomes across primary and secondary education
- Ensure qualified, suitably-skilled and motivated teachers
- Increase equitable access to relevant, high-quality, demand-driven TVET programs
- Increase equitable access to affordable higher education
- Improve access to school readiness programs
- Strengthen performance in science, technology and innovation at all levels
- Increase access to Adult Basic Education to improve adult literacy and numeracy
- Improve administrative and management support services.
All amounts are in US dollars.
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Source: World Bank - Education Data
Data on education are compiled by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics from official responses to surveys and from reports provided by education authorities in each country.
Primary Gross Enrollment Rate (%)
Primary Completion Rate (%)
Lower Secondary Completion Rate (%)
Out-of-school Children Rate (%)
Public Expenditure on Education as Share of GDP (%)
Public Expenditure on Education as a Share of Public Expenditure (%)
Public Expenditure on Primary as a Share of Total Education Expenditure (%)
Teachers Trained (%)
GPE in Rwanda
The US$25.2 million grant approved in May 2015 is one of the first three grants allocated by GPE under its new funding model, where 30% of the grant amount is linked to specific results.
The grant is transferred directly to the government's budget in support of the implementation of the Education Sector Strategic Plan.
Rwanda has chosen the following indicators for the results portion of the grant:
- Equity: the country will monitor the rate of children enrolled in pre-primary school, with a target of 17% in 2017 in the 22 poorest performing districts, compared to a baseline of 10% in 2014.
- Efficiency: the country commits to publishing by April 2017 education statistics for 2016, disaggregated by district.
- Learning: Grade 2 and 5 students will take a learning assessment in 2016, and the results will be used to inform the country's teaching and learning practices.
The ministry of education leads the Education Sector Working Group in Rwanda, which includes development partners and representatives from civil society organizations. There is a good collaboration among the education partners in the country. The coordinating agency is DFID.
As part of a pooled fund, the latest GPE grant to Rwanda has contributed to the following results in the education sector:
- The pre-primary gross enrollment rate has increased from 10% in 2010 to 20.2% in 2015
- The net enrollment rate has increased from 6% in 2010 to 14.2% in 2015
- The overall student drop-out rate has decreased from 10.3% in 2014 to 5.7% in 2015
- The repetition rate dropped from 20.7% in 2014 to 18.4%
- In lower secondary education, the drop-out rate has improved from 14.4% in 2014 to 6.5% in 2015, meaning that the 2015/16 ESSP target of 12.1% has been surpassed
- 3260 new teachers have been recruited at the primary and secondary levels
- 1,404 classrooms have been constructed, for basic education (pre-primary, primary and secondary)
- The new competency-based curriculum is being implemented since 2015, with textbooks being purchased and more than 20,000 teachers sensitized to the new curriculum
- The number of trainees enrolled in TVET (Technical and Vocational Education and Training) increased from 52,386 students in 2010 to 94,373 in 2015
- In-service training in school leadership and management was organized for 416 head teachers.
Source: GPE Standard Reporting Template. June 2016