Comprehensive sexuality education is not just about reproduction, family planning and safe sexual behaviors. It also includes positive aspects of sexuality, such as love and relationships based on mutual respect and equality. It includes discussions about values, rights, culture and gender, about power dynamics based on race, gender, ability or sexuality and how to recognize, challenge and change harmful gender norms.
The research behind comprehensive sexuality education
UNESCO commissioned two evidence-based reviews around comprehensive sexuality education, in 2008 and 2016, and the facts are now clear. Curriculum-based sexuality education programs do not increase sexual activity, sexual risk-taking behaviors or STI/HIV infection rates. Instead, comprehensive sexuality education increases young people’s knowledge and understanding of sexual and reproductive health, can delay sexual initiation and leads to safer sexual behavior.
The evidence tells us that comprehensive sexuality education also empowers young people to question their social context and challenge negative social norms, including gender norms, and to be part of broader societal efforts towards gender equality.
However, despite the evidence, millions of young people around the world are still making the transition from childhood to adulthood receiving inaccurate, incomplete and judgement-laden information around their physical, social and emotional development.
Moreover, without access to good quality comprehensive sexuality education, we cannot achieve the Sustainable Development Goals we have set for 2030. How can we expand education opportunities if we are not able to improve sexual and reproductive health-related outcomes, such as reducing HIV infection and adolescent pregnancy rates? How can we reduce or prevent gender-based violence and create safe and inclusive learning environments, if we are unable to disrupt harmful gender norms?
A new report: Facing the facts
UNESCO has presented the latest evidence at this year’s Women Deliver Conference 2019, as part of a new report, produced with the Global Education Monitoring Report. The report, Facing the facts: the case for comprehensive sexuality education argues that comprehensive sexuality education is part of the delivery of a quality education. It shows how governments can overcome social resistance and operational constraints to scale up these programs as part of their commitment to SDG 4.
It tells us that one of the main barriers to comprehensive sexuality education is negative and misinformed public attitudes. These could be concerns that this type of education is at odds with local cultural or religious beliefs around sexuality, or that it is inappropriate for young children.
There are also operational constraints. Even in countries with an enabling policy environment, implementation can be thwarted by a lack of teacher preparation and support, a lack of appropriate learning materials, and a lack of planning, financing and monitoring.
Engaging all stakeholders
At UNESCO, our comprehensive sexuality education programming is a key pillar of efforts to strengthen the delivery of quality education for all. We have developed a suite of resources to assist governments in strengthening policy frameworks to ensure comprehensive sexuality education in schools, as well as advocacy tools for civil society partners, parents and teachers to use to assist governments in fulfilling this right.
Our activities in this area need to reach beyond ministers and decision-makers, to ensure teachers receive sufficient training, and guidance to deliver the content of comprehensive sexuality education. Together, we must commit to strong political leadership, invest in teacher education, and improve curricula.
Comprehensive sexuality education is an essential part of a good quality education that helps prepare young people for a fulfilling life in a changing world. It improves sexual and reproductive health outcomes, promotes safe and gender equitable learning environments, and improves education access and achievement.
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