Education in Somalia
During 20 years of civil war, more than 75% of public schools were either destroyed or closed in South and Central Somalia. In the last years, with support of GPE, the authorities have again started to build the education system in Puntland and Somaliland. For the rest of the country, the Federal Government is still taking direct responsibility.
Each region has developed a transitional education strategy endorsed by the education sector committees.
Since 2014, the joint sector reviews of the education sectors for Somaliland, Puntland and Somalia-Federal Government are organized annually, with large participation by stakeholders. Puntland held their third joint sector reviews in November 2016, while the Federal Government and Somaliland plan to hold their third joint sector review in December and January respectively.
Education Sector Committees have been set up for Somaliland, Puntland and Somalia-Federal Government. In addition, a global Education Sector Committee (ESC) meets in Nairobi to coordinate donor support. The coordinating agency is the European Union.
Somalia - Federal Government
The Interim Education Sector Strategic Plan covers the period 2013/2014 to 2015/2016. The plan wants to develop a vibrant, efficient and accountable education system to improve access, quality, and gender equity at all levels of education.
In order to achieve its goals, the plan defines the following objectives:
- Establish an education pooled fund initially co-managed by a managing entity to resource the establishment and development of the sector.
- Mobilize funding from the government, the donor partner community and other sources, including the Diaspora.
- Create institutions and systems necessary to develop, manage and provide effective education sector service delivery.
- Restore basic education (early childhood education, primary and secondary levels) by adopting measures to provide school accommodation, teachers and relevant teaching and learning materials.
- Address the needs of marginalized children through innovative and diverse delivery approaches.
- Develop a livelihood-orientated curriculum by ensuring that schooling is linked to the creation of economic development activities and earning a living.
- Develop youth empowerment programs leading to gainful employment.
The Puntland Education Sector Strategic Plan covers the period 2012-2016. Its vision is to build “quality education systems that guarantee and foster success for learners of all abilities”.
Puntland’s education plan is comprehensive and covers the whole education sector. However the state has determined that its three priorities for 2012-2016 are:
- primary education
- non formal education, technical and vocational education and training.
Puntland has defined the following objectives for the period covered by the plan:
- Improve the quality of education at all levels, through improving literacy and numeracy, teacher quality, curriculum, assessments, system management, infrastructure and financing.
- Achieve universal primary education.
- Improve adult literacy and access to life skills and continuing education for adult and youth.
- Eliminate gender disparities in schools.
- Reduce poverty, develop good governance and achieve environmental sustainability.
Somaliland’s Education Sector Strategic Plan covers the period 2012-2016 and covers the full education sector. It set as priorities:
- Delivery of good quality primary education to as many children as possible. This necessitates sufficient numbers of classrooms, well maintained facilities and trained and motivated teachers.
- Cost effective provision of secondary, technical and vocational education and training, higher education and continuous teacher development.
- Reform of the curricula, efficient examinations and good sector management.
The plan sets targets for each goals, and defines as one of its overarching objectives to improve gender equity, to fight the spread of diseases such as HIV/AIDS and to raise awareness for the environment.
The government of Somaliland has committed to increasing the education budget and to managing resources efficiently
All amounts are in US dollars.
|Grant type||Years||Allocations||Disbursements||Grant agent|
|-||Save the Children|
|Sector plan development||2016||483,327
|0||Save the Children|
Source: World Bank - Education Data
Data on education are compiled by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics from official responses to surveys and from reports provided by education authorities in each country.
Primary Gross Enrollment Rate (%)
Primary Completion Rate (%)
Lower Secondary Completion Rate (%)
Out-of-school Children Rate (%)
Public Expenditure on Education as Share of GDP (%)
Public Expenditure on Education as a Share of Public Expenditure (%)
Public Expenditure on Primary as a Share of Total Education Expenditure (%)
Student/Trained teacher ratio
Teachers Trained (%)
GPE in Somalia
In Somalia, GPE processes fostered education sector coordination by encouraging regular meetings of the local education groups, joint sector reviews, and the inclusion of civil society. UNICEF is the grant agent for the three current implementation grants.
Part of the grant was processed as accelerated funding to organize a 15-day accelerated training program and pay incentives to nearly 1,000 newly recruited teachers. This made it possible to extend access to public schools from the beginning of the 2013-14 school year. The remaining program implementation grant of US$6.8 million was approved in November 2013, for a total grant of US$8.2 million.
The program is divided into three components:
- Develop a teacher training system. This includes training of up to 1000 new teachers to expand access.
- Develop a teacher management system to increase the number of teachers in government-supported schools who benefit from predictable salary payments. This includes a setting up a new payment system and payment of teachers through the government.
- Strengthen regional institutions to improve support to basic education services by regional education officers.
The US$2.1 million grant has contributed to improving the ministry of education’s capacity to deliver quality education for all.
The grant supported two main activities:
- Payment of teachers' salaries: a new payment framework will improve the predictability of payments to teachers and provide multi-year funding to sustain and incrementally increase the number of formal primary school teachers on the government payroll. The government of Puntland is committed to increasing the number of additional teachers on the ministry’s payroll at a rate of 150 teachers each year. This component will also support an increase in the number of teachers in remote and pastoral areas, resulting in increased enrollments and improved quality of education provision.
- Training and deployment of female teachers to pastoralist areas to improve equitable outcomes for girls’ education in these areas. Teachers participate in in-service teacher training course.
The GPE US$4.2 million grant supports programs aimed at:
- Strengthening teacher management systems through the payment of salaries of 300 new teachers (150 female teachers per year) and incentive payments for 900 head teachers and 13 regional education officers. This aims to:
- improve teacher salary payments
- strengthen school management through motivated head teachers
- improve regional management and delivery of education services through professionally motivated regional education officers.
- Implementing the Quality Assurance Framework through training workshops and increased supervisory visits to schools.
- Constructing a teacher training institution and implementing new teacher training programs
- Train female teachers to take up leadership positions in schools.
The overall context to carry out the activities supported by the GPE program is extremely challenging, with several attacks directed at the ministry in Mogadishu and partner staff. Despite this, the following progress has been achieved:
For the first time in more than two decades, Somalia has education sector plans that have been agreed by the Federal Government, Puntland and Somaliland. Getting partners together and agreeing common approaches to provide systematic and coherent support, away from the fragmented emergency response, has been a major achievement.
The development of the plans has resulted in collecting basic education statistical data with support from the European Union and UNICEF. However this remains a challenging task in the areas not yet under government control.
Somalia – Federal Government
- 1,226 teachers, deputy head teachers and head teachers received monthly incentive payments
- 7 regional education officers and 5 supervisors receive monthly salaries
- A teacher information management system was successfully piloted.
- 772 new primary school teachers have been trained in child-centered teaching methodologies.
Source: Standard reporting template Annex 1 to CGPC/2016/04 DOC 14
- 838 head teachers, 296 primary school teachers and 14 regional education officers have received monthly incentive payments through a mobile phone payment system.
- 53 senior female teachers received training on educational leadership and management in 2015, and a second training phase of 9 months started in March 2016.
Source: Progress report submitted on behalf of the Somaliland Education Sector Committee. May 2016
- 922 teachers receive monthly incentive payments, including 168 female teachers.
- 52 female teachers have been trained on ICT, multi-grade teaching, developing local teaching materials, early childhood education, special needs and inclusive education and other subjects. All of them passed the final examination and obtained a diploma in pedagogical skills.
- Since the start of the GPE program, the number of female teachers registered on the government payroll rose from 0 to 159.
Source: Standard reporting template April 2015 to May 2016