The initial chapters of the guidelines offer key technical background, covering broad financial concepts such as expenditure and revenue, and progressing into more specialized topics such as budget structures and classification systems.
These guidelines were developed through a consultative process involving representatives from GPE partner developing countries, development partners, education finance experts, civil society organizations and research organizations. In addition, a peer review group was established, representing a cross-section of education stakeholders and members of the partnership.
Principles for education financing
In alignment with Education 2030: Incheon Declaration and Framework for Action for the Implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 4, the guidelines are driven by the following principles, which are fundamental to achieving SDG 4:
- Increase public funding for education: this is the share of the national budget allocated to education (the internationally recommended benchmarks are 15 to 20% of public expenditure and 4 to 6% of gross domestic product allocated to education).
- Improve data: improve the availability, monitoring, transparency and use of financing data, disaggregated by education subsectors, including data on the scale and nature of household costs of education.
- Prioritize those most in need: allocation and use of education resources should be prioritized to focus on increasing equity and inclusion, and support the most marginalized populations, including girls and children affected by conflict.
- Increase efficiency and accountability: existing resources should be used more efficiently through improved governance and accountability.