Learner-centered pedagogy: A “globalized localism”
Learner-centered pedagogy views learners as active participants in their own learning, with their education shaped by their interests, prior knowledge and active investigation. Over the last couple of decades, LCP has spread globally and has been widely endorsed as a “best practice”. In spite of its prominence in education policies, implementation has been challenging, and changes to classroom practice limited.
November 28, 2016 by Christabel Pinto, Room to Read
8 minutes read
Hindi language classroom in North India. Credit: Christabel Pinto

The teacher in this classroom in Uttar Pradesh, India, was doing her very best to do all the “right” things.  She had her students arranged in groups, she gave the groups learning materials to manipulate, and she called students up to the board to lead the reading. 

What the picture cannot show is that a critical component to the lesson was missing: there was no learning objective around which a lesson could be designed. 

Without this structure and intent, the lesson in Hindi language likely produced limited learning.  Students were grouped together but had no task to work on, and one group received plastic letters of the English alphabet instead of the Hindi alphabet.

I was left thinking: this is training on learner-centered pedagogy (LCP) gone awry.  Where have we, as education development actors, failed this teacher? 

A more sobering thought: might she and her students have been better off without us?  Would more learning have taken place in a learning-by-rote lesson than in this attempt at a learner-centered lesson that had learning objectives and lesson planning fall by the wayside?

Exporting learner-centered pedagogy globally

LCP views learners as active participants in their own learning, with their education shaped by their interests, prior knowledge and active investigation.

Over the last couple of decades, LCP has spread globally and has been widely endorsed as a “best practice” in education by international development actors and national governments. 

In spite of its prominence in education policies, implementation has been challenging, and changes to classroom practice limited.  Researchers have reported “tissue rejection” (Harley et al., 2000 in Schweisfurth, 2013) as teachers and learners struggle to make the shift to LCP, just like the recipient of a donor organ may reject it after a transplant.

This is not surprising when we remind ourselves that LCP has been developed in a particular local context. It embodies culturally specific values and takes for granted material abundance and access to information and communication technologies (Vavrus and Bartlett, 2012). 

Exported around the world, “LCP has become a globalized localism, obscuring much of its cultural, historical, and material specificity” (Vavrus and Bartlett, 2012, p.640). 

Approaches to support LCP

A major constraint to implementing LCP is that it is poorly understood by teacher educators and teachers. Teachers often receive professional development that is inadequate and superficial leaving them with a rudimentary, at best, or incorrect understanding of LCP. 

They may be instructed to include group work in their lessons without ensuring a depth of understanding and skillset around managing group work productively, including: why to do it, when it is appropriate, and how to manage groups of children so that it is meaningful for their learning. 

If we want to support teachers in adopting LCP in their classrooms, we need to:

  1. Recognize the tall order in expecting teachers to understand and implement a pedagogy they and their educators have never experienced, and invest in professional development for teachers that allows for deeper engagement, theoretical grounding, debate, reflection, and supported classroom practice relating to LCP.
  2. Localize the “globalized localism”: Instead of a futile attempt to sweep away existing pedagogical practices and replace them with LCP, we need to listen to teachers, understand and respect their local realities, adapt the principles of a learner-centered approach to fit the local context, and build on existing teaching methods.  As Schweisfurth (2013) suggests, LCP can be seen “as a series of continua, rather than seeing it as a single absolute that has only one international configuration” (p 5).   
  3. Be the change we would like to see in classrooms.  Trainings for teachers that use a transmission approach are abundant!  We need to train the way we hope teachers will teach so that we inspire change, model instructional practices, and give teachers control as active participants in their own learning.  Powerpoint presentations are rarely inspiring, and using materials teachers do not have for their own classrooms is not helpful.  At the very least, we will be reminded of how difficult teaching is and cautioned against obscuring the complexity of instructional strategies through quick tips like “use group work”. 
  4. Value and strengthen the fundamentals: Lesson planning is fundamental to teaching: breaking down a curriculum into a logical sequence of lessons, generating a specific learning objective for students for each lesson, designing meaningful activities and assessments for each lesson that support the learning objective, and planning the next lesson accordingly. Any professional development we provide teachers needs to strengthen and value core skills so that these are not forgotten in the pursuit of learner-centered and “active learning”.

Finally, if we hope to move teachers along a continuum towards more learner-centered approaches, advocacy for systemic changes that support such a pedagogical shift is critical. 

LCP with its active investigation and deeper analysis is not practical if, ultimately, students’ education and career futures depend on high-stakes national exams that test their knowledge of vast amounts of factual information.


Schweisfurth, M. (2013). Learner-Centered Education in International Perspective. Journal of International and Comparative Education, 2 (1), 1-7.

Vavrus, F. and L. Bartlett (2012). Comparative Pedagogies and Epistemological Diversity: Social and Materials Contexts of Teaching in Tanzania. Comparative Education Review, 56 (4), 634-655

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Thanks for this blog that heat down the uncritical halleluja for the concept of learning centered pedagogy. Its evident that the move from teaching to learning should be seen as progress and welcomed, but trying to find one path would be wrong. Teaching and learning is about using different methods, for variations and to adapt to the situation based on resources available.

In Norway in the mid 90's the government launched a large project called "responsibility for own learning". In short, putting the responsibility on the shoulders of the learner, expecting him/her to know what it takes learn and integrate the learning process by themselves with the teachers as their facilitators and guides on this adventure.
The results were quite clear, the pupils from the strongest socio/economic family background benefitted and continued to perform good, while those pupils with less support from their parents were not able to benefit and in fact achieved less than under the previous teacher centered learning. I'm not arguing against focusing on the learner, but the methods needs to be many, cultural sensitive and adapted to the classrooms situation.

Hi Christabel,
Good to read this. I've put down some of my own frustrations and suggestions in a Routledge publication, The Critical Global Educator, which follows an Unconditional Pass PhD at UCL-IoE London University. That resulted from life and work in around 40 countries, in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, China and Eastern Europe.

Until we get the balance right, valuing the language and culture of those we profess to 'teach', this linguistic imperialism will continue to be funded and no fun at all!

All the best for your mission.


Teachers must vary their methods of lesson delivery all the time. There is no true or tried method!

Great article. I agree that LCP needs to be localised and integrated into the context of where the teaching is taking place. However, for it to work effectively even after all the suggestions made, it needs to be supported. Working in Zambia and Sub-Saharan Africa, I have observed first hand how teachers embrace LCP, planning for the lessons and the objectives they are looking to achieve and trying very hard to move away from rote learning methodology. As this is a 'new' approach to teaching, some teachers stop when students get engaged and they are not clear on behavioural management techniques. That's where the support needs to come in, for teachers to be mentored through this process. They might received modelled training quite alright, but for those already in the system, mentoring and further professional development support is key to achieving high quality education for all.

Your last point really hit home for me. Value and strengthen the fundamentals. Yes! We're pushing so hard for that group work, pair work, teaching for all learning styles, learner work displayed for all to see, etc. that we, outsiders, sometimes (often?) forget about the goals of learners and teachers. Grounding our teacher professional development work in government curriculum, teachers' lesson plans, and teachers' learning objectives for their students will keep us honest, and maybe even allow us to be effective. I'm going to refer back to each of your four points but your valuing and strengthening the fundamentals is going to stick with me. No more workshops, training sessions, or program designs before looking closely at what teachers, and education administrators and policy makers, are striving for in their schools, with their lesson plans, for their learners. Thank you!

If we focus on only marks and grades may be LCP will be difficult.Make students to explore and investigate as much as they can.They need not to be judged.

It's child centred and they should get better opportunities to prove themselves.

Instead of focusing on grades, we should understand the importance of the overall development of a child.

Learning should be child friendly. Teacher should focus on concept building and developing skill of critical thinking.

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