Education in Indonesia

Indonesia’s education system is the third largest in the Asia region and the fourth largest in the world, with more than 61 million students and 5 million teachers.

The right to education is included in the Indonesia Constitution, and it aims to ensure equal opportunity, be of quality and relevance, and be responsive and resilient to the changing needs of learners. To ensure adequate financing to education, the Constitution mandates a 20% national budget allocation, which is met every year by the government.

The Ministry of Education, Culture, Research and Technology (MoECRT) and the Ministry of Religious Affairs (MoRA) are responsible for the education system, with approximately 85% of enrollment overseen by MoECRT.

The education system is fairly decentralized, with districts and provinces having the largest roles in education service delivery. Policies in the sector are guided by 5-year plans, and the 2020-2024 Medium Term Development Plan guides current implementation.

The country has made improvements in enrolment and gender parity, but low learning outcomes and learning inequality are major challenges. Improving education quality is a priority for the government, and the MoECRT is implementing the Merdeka Belajar (Emancipated Learning) initiative, a vehicle for creating transformational change in Indonesia’s education system.

The initiative is reinforced through a new national curriculum and a new annual assessment framework, and sets out to:

  • Improve students’ literacy and numeracy skills through giving teachers more autonomy to determine how learning takes place in their classrooms
  • Leverage digital technology and innovations to optimize teaching and learning practices
  • Create equal opportunity to learn for all.

Indonesia established its local education group in late 2021, which includes representation of civil society, donors and thinktanks. The group is cochaired by the MoECRT and MORA.

Latest blogs and news

January 11, 2023
Indonesia joins GPE
GPE is pleased to welcome Indonesia into the partnership and work with the Indonesian government to give all children the schooling they need to reach their full potential.
October 06, 2022
Open letter to Indonesia ahead of the G20 summit
Ahead of the meeting of G20 financing ministers in Indonesia, multiple organizations and agencies ask the government of Indonesia to consider adding education financing in this the G20 declaration.


All amounts are in US dollars.

Grant type Years Allocations Utilization Grant agent
System capacity 2022 700,000 0 UNICEF
  Total 700,000 0  
Data last updated: May 26, 2023

Last updated January 23, 2023