Education in Indonesia
Indonesia’s education system is the third largest in the Asia region and the fourth largest in the world, with more than 61 million students and 5 million teachers.
The right to education is included in the Indonesia Constitution, and it aims to ensure equal opportunity, be of quality and relevance, and be responsive and resilient to the changing needs of learners. To ensure adequate financing to education, the Constitution mandates a 20% national budget allocation, which is met every year by the government.
The Ministry of Education, Culture, Research and Technology (MoECRT) and the Ministry of Religious Affairs (MoRA) are responsible for the education system, with approximately 85% of enrollment overseen by MoECRT.
The education system is fairly decentralized, with districts and provinces having the largest roles in education service delivery. Policies in the sector are guided by 5-year plans, and the 2020-2024 Medium Term Development Plan guides current implementation.
The country has made improvements in enrolment and gender parity, but low learning outcomes and learning inequality are major challenges. Improving education quality is a priority for the government, and the MoECRT is implementing the Merdeka Belajar (Emancipated Learning) initiative, a vehicle for creating transformational change in Indonesia’s education system.
The initiative is reinforced through a new national curriculum and a new annual assessment framework, and sets out to:
- Improve students’ literacy and numeracy skills through giving teachers more autonomy to determine how learning takes place in their classrooms
- Leverage digital technology and innovations to optimize teaching and learning practices
- Create equal opportunity to learn for all.
Indonesia established its local education group in late 2021, which includes representation of civil society, donors and thinktanks. The group is cochaired by the MoECRT and MORA.
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All amounts are in US dollars.
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