Education in Myanmar
Following the start of the country’s various reforms in 2011, public funding for education has significantly increased, leading to an important rise in access. The primary net enrollment rate (NER) increased from 88% in 2009-10 to 93 percent in 2014-15. Net enrollment in preprimary education saw an impressive growth between 2008 – when roughly 1 in 20 children were enrolled – and 2014 when nearly 1 in 4 children were enrolled.
The National Education Strategic Plan (NESP) 2016-21 was developed as a result of a nationwide comprehensive education sector review, which started in 2012. The NESP represents an important milestone for education in Myanmar, as the country’s very first education sector plan in the context of a major transition towards democracy.
To accompany the NESP, a multi-year workplan and a monitoring and evaluation framework were created. The first multi-stakeholder annual performance review took place in August 2017, and the second in June 2018.
Myanmar established a multi-stakeholder local education group, the Education & TVET Sector Coordination Group (ETVSCG) in 2017. The group benefits from high-level leadership at the ministry of Education and is co-facilitated by development partners (currently chaired by Australia and UNESCO, with also the Asian Development Bank, Denmark, DFID, EU, Finland, Germany, Japan/JICA, Switzerland, UNICEF and the World Bank). International NGOs (Save the Children, VSO) and two local civil society groups (MyMe and Ratana Metta) are active members of the group.
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The program supported by the US$73.7 million grant aims at improving basic formal education service delivery in disadvantaged townships through school plans/school grants, and at developing and implementing a continuous professional development (CPD) system. It has 4 components:
- Improve quality and inclusion in formal basic education schools
- Improve school planning and funding
- Improve skills and practices of teachers and head teachers
- Improve access to quality education for marginalized children
- Expand access to quality non-formal education services
- Move towards partnership with ethnic basic education providers
- Strengthen public financial management and human resources management systems
- Technical assistance
The grant's results-based portion (US$24 million) is tied to outcomes in equity, efficiency and learning:
- Learners can access and graduate from quality-assured, certified and nationally credentialed AE programs to achieve their lifelong learning and career aspirations
- Increased participation by different education service providers and partner organizations in the basic education sub-sector
- Teachers are equitably recruited, promoted and deployed nationwide following the teacher recruitment, deployment and promotion policy and system
- Significant improvements experienced by students in their school and classroom learning environment
- In-service teachers actively participate in teaching and mentoring activities implemented by trainers and mentors, deliver interactive teaching in basic education schools, and achieve Teacher Competency Framework Standards.
GPE has also provided the National Network for Education Reform (NNER) with a grant from the Civil Society Education Fund, to support its engagement in education sector policy dialogue and citizens’ voice in education quality, equity, and financing and sector reform.
Education sector progress
The graphs below show overall progress in the education sector in Myanmar, and GPE data shows the country progress on 16 indicators monitored in the GPE Results Framework.
Primary completion rate (%)
Lower secondary completion rate
Out-of-school rate for children of primary school age
Out-of-school rate for adolescents of lower secondary school age
Pre-primary gross enrollment rate
Gender parity index for out-of-school rate – Primary and lower secondary
Public expenditure on education as share of GDP (%)
Students/trained teacher ratio
Teachers trained (%)
Source: World Bank - Education Data
Data on education are compiled by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics from official responses to surveys and from reports provided by education authorities in each country.