Education in Mozambique
Since its independence, the government of Mozambique has viewed education as a fundamental right of all citizens and as essential for the reduction of poverty and the development of the country.
The government has prioritized the creation and expansion of opportunities to ensure that all children have access to, and complete, a basic education of seven years, while at the same time creating conditions for a sustainable expansion of quality post-primary education.
The three main objectives of the education sector plan for 2012-2016 (extended to 2019) are:
- To ensure inclusion and equity in access to school and retention by:
- Improving internal efficiency of institutions, which will lead to an increased number of graduates, diversified teaching modalities and expansion of the provision of education by the private sector.
- Implementing social support programs such as school feeding and material support for the most vulnerable children.
- Integrating specific interventions targeting cross-cutting areas including but not limited to HIV and AIDS, gender equity, special needs and inclusive education, the construction of healthy and safe schools, and school sports.
- To improve student learning by:
- Increasing access to financial, material and human resources that directly benefit schools.
- Ensuring that teachers are better prepared and supported by investing in teacher training, on-going assessments of student learning, and incentives to encourage better performance.
- Improving school management through greater attention to the selection, placement and capacity building of school managers; school supervision and monitoring; and capacity building of school councils, among others.
- To enhance good governance of the system by:
- Improving internal controls in implementing the sector's programs and in managing its resources.
- Strengthening supervision and inspection, and greater involvement of the school councils to ensure accountability and compliance with educational standards and norms.
Even though Mozambique has made significant progress, it still faces many challenges such as low retention, sub-optimal learning environment, and poor management at school level.
Interventions for the next few years focus on promoting:
- Local governance of the school through (i) local school ownership, (ii) district level supervision focused on student learning, and (iii) an empowered school principal;
- New dynamics in the classroom, mainly through more effective teachers in the first cycle of primary education,
- Better use of existing resources, ensuring their availability in school at the beginning of the school year and prioritizing the improvement of basic school conditions.
Source: Operational Plan 2015-2018
Source: World Bank - Education Data
Data on education are compiled by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics from official responses to surveys and from reports provided by education authorities in each country.
Primary completion rate (%)
Lower secondary completion rate
Out-of-school rate for children of primary school age
Out-of-school rate for adolescents of lower secondary school age
Pre-primary gross enrollment rate
Gender parity index for out-of-school rate – Primary and lower secondary
Public expenditure on education as share of GDP (%)
Public expenditure on education as a share of public expenditure (%)
Students/trained teacher ratio
Teachers trained (%)
GPE in Mozambique
In 2015, the Mozambique education sector support program was restructured and received additional financing from two different grants: a GPE grant for US$57.9 million and an IDA grant for US$50 million, which support the implementation of its education sector plan through the pooled-fund, FASE, supported by 10 donors.
The GPE grant of US$57.9 million helps to enhance early reading, writing and numeric skills. The grant also improves the learning environment and strengthens service delivery through school management, local governance and accountability.
The three components of FASE are:
- Improving the quality of education by:
- Supporting primary education teachers’ training activities, both pre-service training and on the job training
- Supporting the production of revised primary school textbooks and learning materials to support the curriculum reform
- Supporting ongoing curriculum reform for primary education, monitoring learning outcomes and promoting action-oriented research.
- Strengthening local governance and school-based management by:
- Increasing the involvement and role of school councils
- Improving monitoring and supervision at the district level, including reviewing the roles and responsibilities of the district supervisors and designing a manual to systematize and support their work at the local level.
- Supporting community-based early childhood development (ECD) by:
- Providing community-based ECD services in rural areas of selected provinces and districts through the delivery of ECD basic service packages
- Building technical and institutional capacity.
In Mozambique, the local education group is led by the Ministry of education (MINED) and includes development partners and civil society. The current coordinating agencies are the ministry of education and Ireland.
FASE has contributed to significant progress in the education sector including:
- The net enrollment rate of 6-year old children in Grade 1 increased from 70% in 2011 to 86.40% in 2016,
- There are 29,094 additional teachers in primary schools,
- 90.70% of students of Grade 1 and 2 benefitted from Portuguese and Mathematics textbooks,
- 12,596 teachers for Grade 1 and 2 have received in-service training.
- 939 primary school directors have received management training,
- 11.1% of the newly trained primary school directors have had their performance evaluated the following year,
- 99% of primary schools received their grants before the 28th of February of each year,
- A system for learning assessment at the primary level has been established.
Source: World Bank Implementation Status and Results Report – June 2017